Multiple studies have now been published which demonstrate an increased risk of congenital heart disease in children conceived with various forms of assisted reproduction. This increased risk appears to be independent of and in addition to risk factors common among many women who undergo assisted reproduction.
Recent literature indicates 2 to 4 fold increase in the CHD risk in pregnancies conceived via IVF (in vitro fertilization with or without intra cytoplasmic sperm injection). [Hansen M. N Eng J Med 2002;346:725-730, Koivurova S. Hum Reprod 2002;17:1391-1398, Reefhuis J. Hum Reprod 2009;24:360-366, Bahtiyar MO, J Ultra Med 2010;in-press]
There is conflicting information whether all IVF gestations are affected. Some literature indicates singletons, some other suggests multiples are affected.
Reasons for increased CHD in IVF gestations are not clear at this time, however epigenetic changes might play some role.